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Zimmerman said in response that he had a bad memory and takes medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Zimmerman said he didn't want to confront Martin. On June 26, , the prosecution released the results of a voice stress test performed on George Zimmerman the day after the shooting.

During a bond hearing on April 20, , Investigator Dale Gilbreath testified under oath that he did not know whether Zimmerman or Martin started the fight and that there is no evidence to contradict Zimmerman's claim that he was walking back to his vehicle when Martin confronted him.

Gilbreath, however, questioned Zimmerman's statement that Martin was slamming his head against the sidewalk just before he shot the teenager, saying it was "not consistent with the evidence we found.

On July 18, , Zimmerman, accompanied by his attorney Mark O'Mara , gave his first long media interview to Sean Hannity , and part of the interview appeared on Hannity that evening.

During the interview, Zimmerman said that he did not regret his actions on the night of the shooting and that he felt that what had happened "was all God's plan".

I want to tell everyone, my wife, my family, my parents, grandmother, the Martins, the city of Sanford and America: I'm sorry that this happened.

When Hannity asked Zimmerman why his suspicions were aroused when he noticed Martin, Zimmerman replied in part:. I felt he was suspicious because it was raining.

He was in-between houses, cutting in-between houses, and he was walking very leisurely for the weather It didn't look like he was a resident that went to check their mail and got caught in the rain and was hurrying back home.

He didn't look like a fitness fanatic that would train in the rain. Following the interview with Hannity, Special Prosecutor Angela Corey filed formal notice that she intended to use the interview as evidence against Zimmerman.

Florida defense lawyers said it was a mistake for Zimmerman to do a television interview and discuss what happened that night.

One of them said, "It's really baffling what he thought he'd gain from it. I question who's in charge of the defense strategy, Zimmerman or O'Mara".

Martin's parents said they did not accept Zimmerman's apology for killing their son. On April 11, , an affidavit of probable cause was filed in support of second-degree murder charges against Zimmerman.

The affidavit described what investigators alleged took place between Zimmerman and Martin on the night of the shooting.

Prosecutors alleged that Zimmerman profiled Martin as he was walking back from a nearby 7-Eleven store to the townhouse where he was temporarily living.

Zimmerman called the police, and prosecutors said the dispatcher told Zimmerman an officer was on the way and to wait for him. In the call, Zimmerman made reference to people he felt had gotten away with break-ins in the neighborhood.

Investigators alleged that while Zimmerman was talking to the dispatcher, Martin was on the phone with a friend and she said that Martin was scared because he was being followed by an unknown man.

When the police dispatcher realized Zimmerman was following Martin, he told Zimmerman that was unnecessary and that police would meet him there.

Prosecutors alleged that Zimmerman ignored the dispatcher and continued following Martin and confronted him and a struggle ensued. When police arrived at the scene, Zimmerman admitted to shooting Martin in the chest.

Legal analysts criticized the prosecution for over-charging Zimmerman, claiming that the probable cause affidavit did not support a charge of second-degree murder.

Richard Kuritz, a former prosecutor who worked with Angela Corey, said the state attorney had no obligation to include exculpatory evidence in the affidavit.

He stated that Dershowitz could face civil action for making accusations that Corey committed a crime. In recordings of the calls, yells for help are audible in the background.

Zimmerman's family says it was Zimmerman yelling for help, Martin's family says it was Martin yelling for help, and independent audio analysts offer differing opinions as to who was yelling for help.

During the trial, friends and family members of both Zimmerman and Martin testified as to who they thought the voice was, but expert testimony regarding voice identification was not allowed.

In an interview with prosecutors on March 19, Zimmerman's father identified the yells as George Zimmerman's, stating, "There is no doubt who is yelling for help.

It is absolutely my son. According to police reports, after listening to audio recordings of the calls, Martin's father, Tracy Martin, told police investigators that it was not Trayvon Martin's voice yelling for help.

Investigators interviewed Martin's mother, Sybrina Fulton, who reviewed the calls to police and identified the voice crying for help as her son.

Zimmerman's attorneys requested a Frye hearing regarding the admissibility of the testimony of the audio analysts, to determine if the methods used by them are generally accepted by the scientific community.

Tracy Martin was skeptical of the account of his son's death told to him by Sanford police investigators and believed Zimmerman did not act in self-defense.

Two days after the shooting, he was referred to civil rights attorney Benjamin Crump , [75] who was retained to pursue legal action and to persuade the news media to cover the case.

On April 5, , more than a year after the shooting, it was reported that the Martin family had settled a wrongful death claim against the Retreat at Twin Lakes Homeowners Association.

On June 28, in an interview with CNN conducted during the trial of George Zimmerman, Alicia Stanley, Trayvon Martin's step-mother Trayvon's father's former wife , stated that she believed Zimmerman had profiled Trayvon as a criminal, although she was not convinced that the profiling was based on race.

While the shooting was being investigated, Zimmerman, his wife, and his parents went into hiding due to threats they were receiving as the case gained more attention.

On April 9, Zimmerman placed a self-created web site on the internet, which included some brief statements, but no information about the shooting, since he had been advised by legal counsel not to discuss it.

He also solicited donations for living expenses and legal defense costs. After taking over as Zimmerman's defense counsel on April 11, Mark O'Mara took down Zimmerman's self-created web site and replaced it with a professional information site.

He arranged for a second web site to be set up to collect donations overseen by an independent third party. He was subsequently released again with a higher bail amount.

The conviction will be expunged at the end of her probation period. George Zimmerman's defense team had set up a Twitter account, a Facebook page and a website with a defense fund registered with the Florida Division of Consumer Services.

In July , Zimmerman reactivated his original website, and his parents also created their own web site. Both sites discuss how the case has changed the Zimmermans' lives and seek donations for living expenses.

On January 30, , Zimmerman's attorney, Mark O'Mara, asked on Zimmerman's defense fund website for the public to donate more money.

After the shooting, Zimmerman was criticized by the Martin family and in the media for following Martin and for carrying a weapon.

Zimmerman was not acting outside the legal boundaries of Florida Statute by carrying his weapon when this incident occurred.

We'll figure it out Observe from a safe location". Protests were staged around the U. It was the website's largest petition ever.

Since Martin was killed while wearing a hoodie , hoodies were used as a sign of protest over the handling of the case.

Bags of Skittles candy and cans of Arizona Iced Tea were also used as protest symbols. Martin was reported to be returning from a 7-Eleven convenience store with these items when he was shot, [] [] [] although the beverage he purchased was actually a can of Arizona Watermelon Fruit Juice Cocktail.

Walkouts were staged by students at over a dozen Florida high schools, [] and thousands of people attended rallies around the country to demand Zimmerman's arrest.

A number of high-profile citizens made public comments or released statements calling for a full investigation, including Reverend Al Sharpton , [] [] Reverend Jesse Jackson , [] and President Barack Obama.

No arrest was made. The Chief of Police in Sanford announced after his review of the evidence there would be no arrest.

An outcry from all over this country came because his parents refused to leave it there. President Obama, speaking to reporters on March 23 after federal investigators were deployed to Sanford, said, "When I think about this boy, I think about my own kids, and I think every parent in America should be able to understand why it is absolutely imperative that we investigate every aspect of this If I had a son, he would look like Trayvon.

Bryant singled out Al Sharpton and Jesse Jackson for being "race hustlers" who were exploiting Martin's death "to inflame racial passions". According to Zimmerman's father, George Zimmerman received death threats after the shooting and was forced to move out of his home.

In parts of the U. Film director Spike Lee retweeted to his , Twitter followers an address in Sanford, Florida, erroneously purported to be Zimmerman's, which forced a family out of their home to avoid harassment after they received hate mail and unwanted visits from reporters.

Lee also "settled financially" with the Florida couple for an undisclosed amount. Professor Alan Dershowitz criticized the probable cause affidavit against Zimmerman as "so thin that it won't make it past the judge", calling it "irresponsible and unethical", and opined that the charges were motivated by prosecutor Corey's desire to be re-elected.

Dershowitz said the dean defended his remarks under academic freedom, and he commented that "[e]ven if Angela Corey's actions were debatable, which I believe they were not, I certainly have the right, as a professor who has taught and practiced criminal law nearly 50 years, to express a contrary view.

Chicago Tribune columnist Eric Zorn wrote " His comments were criticized by the Martin family attorney, Benjamin Crump, who compared them to people blaming rape victims for wearing short skirts.

Bill O'Reilly of Fox News called for restraint and urged other pundits to stop trying the case in the media. He said that the case is a "tragedy" but should not be tried in the media.

After Zimmerman's bond was revoked for misrepresenting how much money he had when his bond was set, [] Martin family attorney Benjamin Crump said he expected the prosecution to bring Zimmerman's credibility "front and center in this entire case".

Zimmerman was accused of being motivated by racism [3] [] and of having racially profiled Martin. The unedited audio recording proved that the police dispatcher specifically asked about Martin's race, and only then did Zimmerman reveal that Martin was black.

NBC apologized for the misleading edit and disciplined those involved. In an open letter on March 15, , Zimmerman's father, Robert Zimmerman, defended his son against allegations that his actions were racially motivated, stating that Zimmerman was Hispanic , was raised in a multiracial family, and "would be the last to discriminate for any reason whatsoever", saying that the portrayal of his son as a racist "could not be further from the truth".

Just as George Zimmerman's trial was set to begin, Robert Zimmerman published an e-book about the case in which he said that prior to the shooting, he had generally believed racism was no longer much of a problem and that he had personally not experienced much racism, despite being married to a Hispanic woman, but that since the shooting he had found that racism is "flourishing at the insistence of some in the African American Community".

According to George Zimmerman's family, some of Zimmerman's relatives are black. In early April, an anonymous letter to the NAACP, which was signed "A Concerned Zimmerman Family Member" said Zimmerman had been one of the few to take any action to protest the beating of Sherman Ware, a black homeless man, by the son of a Sanford police officer.

Zimmerman reportedly distributed fliers in the black community trying to get others involved too, and helped organize a January 8, , Sanford City Hall community forum to protest the incident.

On the audiotape, Zimmerman was heard criticizing the conduct of the Sanford Police Department in the Ware case.

Zimmerman criticized former chief, Brian Tooley, and said Tooley had engaged in a "cover-up" and that he should lose his pension. He also said he'd been on ride-alongs with Sanford police where he found them to be lazy.

The Herald also reported that it had contacted five out of six black churches where Zimmerman was reported to have distributed fliers on the Ware beating, however no one recalled receiving them.

On July 12, , reports of some of the more than 30 interviews conducted by the FBI were publicly released. Zimmerman's neighbors had nothing derogatory to say about him, and his co-workers were complimentary.

During the trial, defense attorney Don West implied that the language Martin had allegedly used was evidence that Martin had introduced race into the confrontation.

For not arresting Zimmerman, the Sanford police faced heavy criticism, protests, and allegations of racial bias. Attorney General Eric Holder expressing "no confidence that, absent federal oversight, the Sanford Police Department will devote the necessary degree of care to its investigation" and requesting that personnel be detailed to Sanford to review the case without bias.

Allegations were also made that the Sanford police were protecting Zimmerman. He's not under a legal obligation to do that, so that is not something we can charge him with.

On March 21, , three out of the five members of the Sanford City Commission, including the mayor, passed a motion of no confidence in regards to the Police Chief Bill Lee, and his handling of the case; however, the vote was advisory only.

Some commissioners had concerns about the fairness of Lee losing his job and the mayor stated he preferred to wait for the results of an investigation.

Lee was to remain on paid leave. In an interview with CNN, following his testimony at Zimmerman's trial, Bill Lee said that he felt pressure from city officials to arrest Zimmerman to placate the public rather than as a matter of justice.

They didn't care if it got dismissed later. The Sanford police presented a " capias request" to the state's attorney, asking that they determine whether it was a "justifiable homicide".

The Zimmerman defense team initially planned to seek to dismiss the case against Zimmerman under the protection afforded by Florida's " stand your ground " self-defense law.

Self-defense laws in the United States , particularly regarding justifiable homicide , vary by state. In many states, such laws exempt people in their own homes from the common-law requirement that one first attempt to retreat , if one can safely do so, before resorting to the use of deadly force the so-called " castle doctrine ", based on the notion that "a person's home is his castle".

Three weeks after the shooting, Florida Governor Rick Scott commissioned a member task force to review the Florida statute that deals with justifiable use of force, including the Stand Your Ground provision.

Several months following Zimmerman's acquittal, in October bills to revise Florida's Stand Your Ground law provisions in accordance with several of the suggestions offered in by the governor's task force began advancing through the Florida legislature with bipartisan support.

For the first 10 days after Martin's death, the story was covered by only by local media outlets in Florida. The Project for Excellence in Journalism reported that media coverage of the Trayvon Martin case became the first story in to be featured more than the presidential race.

According to the Project, the varying types of media have focused on the case in different ways. An article in the Tampa Bay Times wrote that, "on Twitter, people are outraged at Zimmerman and want justice, while on cable news and talk radio people are discussing the state's laws for self-defense and gun control and on blogs the focus has been on race.

The contrast in the photos of Martin and of Zimmerman which were most widely used in early media reports of the shooting may have influenced initial public perceptions of the case.

The initial police report on the shooting described Zimmerman as white. Economist and commentator Thomas Sowell criticized the national media for implying that Zimmerman had continued to follow Martin after the police dispatcher said, "We don't need you to do that.

After the audio of the call was released, reports by CNN [] and other news outlets alleged that Zimmerman had said "fucking coons" two minutes and twenty-one seconds 2: Two weeks later on April 4, , CNN claimed that enhanced audio revealed that Zimmerman had said "fucking cold" alluding to ongoing rain in February.

On one version of the recording played by NBC, Zimmerman was heard saying, "This guy looks like he's up to no good or he's on drugs or something He's got his hand in his waistband, and he's a black male.

Or he's on drugs or something. It's raining and he's just walking around, looking about. Zimmerman simply answered a question Nothing prejudicial at all in responding to such an inquiry To portray that exchange in a way that wrongs Zimmerman is high editorial malpractice NBC issued an apology for "an error made in the production process that we deeply regret," [] but never apologized on the air.

On December 6, , Zimmerman filed a defamation lawsuit against NBC alleging that they intentionally edited the phone call so that Zimmerman would sound racist.

The lawsuit said, "NBC saw the death of Trayvon Martin not as a tragedy but as an opportunity to increase ratings, and so set about to create the myth that George Zimmerman was a racist and predatory villain.

Zimmerman unfairly and we intend to vigorously defend our position in court. In the ruling, the judge wrote that there was "no clear and convincing evidence that defendants knew that the information published was false at the time it was published, or recklessly disregarded the truth or falsity of those statements".

ABC News obtained a surveillance video of Zimmerman walking unassisted into the Sanford police station after the shooting.

An officer is seen pausing to look at the back of Zimmerman's head, but ABC originally said that no abrasions or blood can be seen in the video.

In his July 26, , column, Slate journalist William Saletan accused several major news organizations of editing interviews with "Juror B29" to make it appear that she maintained Zimmerman had gotten away with murder when, according to Saletan, she had not actually done so.

As news of the case spread, thousands of protesters across the country called for Zimmerman's arrest and a full investigation.

Opening statements took place on June 24, Jury deliberations began on July On July 13, , the jury found him not guilty. On February 24, , the United States Department of Justice announced that "there was not enough evidence for a federal hate crime prosecution.

Some legal scholars, including Charles Rose of Stetson University and Jonathan Turley of George Washington University, were not surprised by the verdict and said the prosecution had tactically erred by charging Zimmerman with second-degree murder, which, given Florida's laws on self-defense, made it almost impossible for the prosecution to prove their case beyond a reasonable doubt with the evidence at their disposal.

George Zimmerman remained in hiding after the verdict, although it was reported that on July 17, four days after the verdict, Zimmerman helped rescue several people from an overturned vehicle in Sanford, Florida.

Zimmerman's parents said that they too had received a large number of death threats and were still too afraid to return to their home after the verdict.

During a speech at to the NAACP, Attorney General Eric Holder stated that the Department of Justice was continuing to investigate Zimmerman for civil rights violations after the verdict, and also criticized existing "stand-your-ground" laws.

Although there were scattered incidents of disturbances and vandalism following the not-guilty ruling, fears of widespread civil unrest as per the Rodney King verdict in were unrealized.

The man said the three assailants yelled out "This is for Trayvon! Just days after the Zimmerman trial verdict had been announced, several dozen activists known as the Dream Defenders began to camp outside Governor Rick Scott's office in the Capitol, demanding that the governor call the legislature into special session to pass what the activists called The Trayvon Martin Civil Rights Act , which would repeal the Stand Your Ground law, outlaw racial profiling, and discourage the use of zero tolerance policies in schools.

Democratic leaders in the Florida legislature, Senate Minority Leader Chris Smith and House Minority Leader Perry Thurston , also called on the governor to convene a special session of the legislature, in order to overhaul or possibly repeal the Stand Your Ground provisions of Florida's self-defense laws.

On July 19, six days after the verdict, President Barack Obama gave an impromptu minute speech in the White House Press Room , in which he spoke about the trial and about race relations in the United States.

A week after the verdict, peaceful rallies and vigils were held in more than cities nationwide to protest racial profiling, demand the repeal of Stand Your Ground laws, and call for a federal trial of Zimmerman for violations of civil rights laws.

A nationwide poll conducted for The Washington Post and ABC News found sharp divisions along racial and political lines over the shooting and over the jury's verdict.

The acquittal of Zimmerman on the charge of murdering Martin, inspired a Facebook posting that included the phrase "black lives matter", which later became the name of the Black Lives Matter movement.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Timeline of the shooting of Trayvon Martin. Zimmerman call to police.

Trial of George Zimmerman. One of her grandfathers was Afro-Peruvian. Trayvon Martin at store night of shooting". Retrieved March 29, Retrieved September 18, Retrieved April 11, Prelude to a shooting".

Retrieved March 20, Retrieved April 21, The New York Times. Retrieved June 23, Retrieved March 23, Tuesday March 27, Retrieved December 9, Trayvon Martin's Death Ultimately Avoidable".

Retrieved June 15, Retrieved June 12, Retrieved June 30, Retrieved July 12, Retrieved March 24, George Zimmerman's brother defends him as his father attacks Obama".

Retrieved April 14, Sanford Police Chief under fire in Trayvon Martin shooting case". Archived from the original on July 15, Retrieved June 21, Archived from the original on June 22, Retrieved June 20, Retrieved June 26, Retrieved October 21, Sanford police chief blames spokesman for mishandling Trayvon Martin case".

Retrieved September 7, Crump, Attorney Profile parkscrump. Controversy, racial strife familiar for attorney Benjamin Crump". Retrieved April 8, Archived from the original on April 1, In , lazy Sanford police engaged in coverup".

Archived from the original on October 5, Retrieved June 28, Trayvon Martin shooter George Zimmerman broke neighborhood watch gun rules". Retrieved July 7, Archived from the original on May 8, There is a very good but limited folkloric menu and some great local wines.

Nothing gourmet here, but very friendly, affordable and family friendly. We have enjoyed it as a couple The food at this restaurant is excellent - inventive and plentiful, plus great value for what you are served.

We ate in the courtyard which was draped by grapevines and full of charm. Try the red house wine as it is very nice. Went to Zimmerman's last night.

Excellent, cosy ambience with a musician playing the Hungarian "zambar" spelling? A great evening for a special occasion.

We went in early October , and stumbled upon this Heuriger after walking down the road from Maly's. We decided right away to try it out because it looked off the beaten path, and not tourist, meaning that we were likely going to get an It is a full service restaurant unlike the normal buffet style of the Heuriger in Grinzing.

You can sit in the house We visited this place in July - i was about 36 degress in Wienna, really hot. This was nice warm evening. The restaurant is situated near wineyards on the hill so you have lovely views sitting outside.

We were really impressed. Great ambience in the garden during the summer months. Will be back next year. We have had dinner here in the garden.

Great food and wine. Asparagus was in season and where absolutely great! Best is to make a reservation. All of your saved places can be found here in My Trips.

Log in to get trip updates and message other travelers. However, a small signal from the gamma monitor s into the cool-down phase indicated a cladding crack.

The results of the first scoping analysis based on the currently available data from the test IFA Specifically, the methodology allows for analysis of the impact of missing pellet surface MPS on the failure-related characteristics of the cladding, particularly the peak local hoop stress, along with the account for the transient gaseous pellet swelling.

Specifically, a capability of the new methodology to differentiate between the cases with failure and without failure is shown. Moreover, the results for the stress-concentration factors caused by MPS, as function of angular size of the defect, are in good agreement with the results of a similar study by the main developer of the Falcon code.

Furthermore, the predicted effects of MPS-defect size have been compared with the effects of power ascension rate, with the power ramp level being kept the same.

Multi-scale and multi-physics calculations, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. A comprehensive model GRSW-A was developed to analyse the processes of fission gas release, gaseous swelling and microstructural evolutions in the uranium dioxide fuel during base irradiation and under transient conditions.

The GRSW-A analysis incorporates a number of models published in open literature, as well as some original models that were already published by the authors elsewhere.

The first verification was carried out using the experimental data for the inner pressure during the gas outflow after cladding rupture in tests 3, 4 and 5.

The analysis with the new methodology shows that the dynamics of axial gas-flow along the rod and through the cladding rupture can have a strong influence on the fuel rod behaviour.

Specifically, a delayed axial gas redistribution during the heat-up phase of the LOCA can result in a drop of local pressure in the ballooned area, which is eventually able to affect the cladding burst.

The results of the new model seem to be useful when analysing some of the Halden LOCA tests showing considerable fuel relocation and selected cases of LOCA in full-length fuel rods.

While the short rods used in the Halden tests only show a very small effect of the delayed gas redistribution during the clad ballooning, such an effect is predicted to be significant in the full-scale rods — with a power peak located sufficiently away from the plenum — resulting in a considerable delay of the predicted moment of cladding rupture.

Insights from the SM2A pilot study towards quantification of a change of plant safety margin after a hypothetical power up-rate.

During recent years, many nuclear power plants underwent significant modifications, e. While compliance with all the deterministic acceptance criteria must be shown during the licensing process, the larger core inventory and the facts that the plant response might get closer to the limits after a power up-rate, suggest an increase of the core damage frequency CDF and other possible risk indicators.

Hence, a framework to quantitatively assess a change in plant safety margin becomes very desirable.

This pilot study was completed end of An increase of the conditional probability of exceedance for a surrogate acceptance limit PCT indicating core damage was successfully evaluated for the selected sequences from several initiating event trees, and it was found that only a restricted number of sequences need to be analyzed.

The impact of power up-rate could also be assessed for scenarios where no violation of the surrogate criterion was observed.

The modeling of human actions was found to be of particular importance as the sequences related to scenarios including a time delay for a recovery action or for a repair correspond to the more visible risk increase.

In order to implement a comprehensive state-of-the-art methodology for the safety evaluation of LOCA transients in a EPRTM, a systematic study of the fuel-behavior during such transients has been conducted, considering different sets of initial conditions and operating histories.

The change of fuel behaviour with different power histories is calculated and compared the results with each other during the base irradiation.

The first verification has then been carried out using the experimental data for the inner pressure during the gas outflow after cladding rupture in the Halden LOCA tests IFA As analysis shows, the dynamics of axial gas-flow along the rod and through the cladding-rupture can have strong influence on the fuel rod behaviour during the LOCA.

Specifically, the delayed axial gas redistribution during the heat-up phase can result in a drop of the local pressure in the ballooned area during the ballooning, which is eventually able to affect the parameters of cladding burst.

The results of the new model seem to be useful when considering the Halden LOCA tests — showing great fuel relocation — against the selected scenarios of LOCA in a full-length fuel rod.

As seen from the results of the model, the short rods used in the Halden tests reveal a very little effect of the delayed gas redistribution during the ballooning, whereas such effect is predicted to be significant in the full-scale rods - with a power-peak located sufficiently away from the plenum — resulting in a considerable delay of the predicted moment of cladding rupture.

The impact of a power uprate on risk from small and medium LOCA scenarios. The evaluation of proposed plant modifications combines deterministic safety analysis focusing on design basis accidents and Probabilistic Safety Analysis PSA for beyond-design basis scenarios.

While deterministic acceptance criteria must be met before and after plant modifications, modifications do affect safety.

This paper discusses a study performed to quantify this impact, within the frame of the Safety Margin Analysis and Application SM2A task.

A reduction of bounding assumptions and the explicit treatment of uncertainties in the accident sequence thermal-hydraulic analyses are key aspects of the SM2A analyses, which use elements of "best estimate plus uncertainty" deterministic safety analysis.

An explicit treatment of the distribution of the time to switch to recirculation mode is one of the main features of the MLOCA analysis. The results demonstrate that the SM2A methodology is capable of quantifying small changes in the core damage frequency CDF , which the bounding approach in PSA might mask.

In addition, they underscore a need to address aleatory uncertainties explicitly in some PSA accident sequence calculations.

Since some years, there is a worldwide trend to move towards ''higher-fidelity'' simulation techniques in reactor analysis. One of the main objectives of the research in this area is to enhance the prediction capability of the computations used for safety demonstration of the current LWR nuclear power plants through the dynamic 3D coupling of the codes simulating the different physics of the problem into a common multi-physics simulation scheme.

In this context, the NURESAFE European project aims at delivering to the European stakeholders an advanced and reliable software capacity usable for safety analysis needs of present and future LWR reactors and developing a high level of expertise in Europe in the proper use of the most recent simulation tools including uncertainty assessment to quantify the margins toward feared phenomena occurring during an accident.

These physics are fully integrated into the platform in order to provide a standardized state-of-the-art code system to support safety analysis of current and evolving LWRs.

Large-scale irradiated fuel experiments at proteus research program. The techniques are based on delayed neutrons or high energy gamma-rays emitted by short lived fission products, both produced in pins re-irradiated in PROTEUS.

Preliminary results show that a 6x6 burnt fuel bundle should adequately represent the interface between fresh and burnt PWR fuel assemblies, and that CASMO-4E appears suitable to analyze this complex experiment.

Specifically, the analysis of the governing processes for the fuel rod behaviour during the RIA events simulated in the experimental facility of the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor NSRR, Japan are in the focus of the present study.

The results obtained can be useful for a better transfer of the NSRR test results in relation to the corresponding behaviour in LWRs and furthermore might also support the planning of future additional experiments.

For the development of new acceptance criteria for the analysis of Rod-Ejection-Accidents REA in Pressurized Water Reactor UO2 cores, full-width-at-half-maximum power pulse widths in the range 25—40ms were employed in the analytical transient fuel behaviour studies.

This study is presented in a first part of this paper. Finally, to provide confidence in the results, particularly for pulse widths below 25ms, sensitivity studies are performed to assess the effects of specific modelling options and assumptions applied in the REA 3D kinetic analysis and to compare the sensitivities between UO2 and MOX cores.

On the basis of all these studies, it is found that the MOX core pulse width is usually around 5 to 10ms lower than for UO2 cores.

For rod worths close to 2. To shortly address the applicability of these results, i. And it was found that even for these types of cores, the pulse width would, although being slightly reduced, remain in the range 10—15ms for rod reactivities up to pcm above prompt criticality.

In subsequent steps, radial and axial correction factors, both based on fast flux results from the 3-D core simulator, are applied to the calculated 2-D transport flux in order to take into account radial leakage effects as well as axial flux gradients around the tip.

The fluence is finally estimated through a time-integration of the corrected 2-D transport fast flux. The developed methodology has been applied to estimate the fluence for a total of 15 control rods, over 21 operating cycles of a Swiss nuclear power plant.

An analysis of the influence of the recent upgrade in the data file is thus needed with respect to specific practical applications. A new LOCA test at Halden was planned as the first experiment within the Halden LOCA program addressing the behaviour of commercially irradiated BWR fuel of medium burn-up with burst of the cladding expected to occur at a temperature of about oC, which is essentially higher than in the preceding experiments.

The specific measures to be adopted have been suggested based upon a parametric study using the FALCON fuel behaviour code and aimed at an optimized design of the test fuel rod for the given high target cladding temperature of oC peak local.

The analysis has shown a reasonable agreement with the fundamental experimental findings, such as correlations of NUREG, as well as consistency with the data from Halden LOCA testing available so far.

Thus, a general conclusion is drawn about the applicability of the methodology developed at PSI to the analysis of LWR fuel rod behaviour during LOCA, in consideration of the effects of fuel burn-up.

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